Writings By Harry Price
It was my good fortune, in the early weeks of 1923, to be put into touch with a young lady who was thought to possess psychic powers, but who had never been under experiment. It had always been my ambition to secure a medium before the development of the psychic faculties had taken place, in order to watch the growth of the phenomena and to direct the psychic emanations into predetermined channels for experimental purposes. I therefore looked forward to my sittings with Stella C, with the greatest of interest.
Stella is a normal, healthy girl, twenty-three years old, of a quiet and unassuming disposition. She is reserved in her manner, pleasant in her speech, and very willing and tractable in her endeavor to help the investigators in every way. She is of medium height, slim, and a typical specimen of the modern, well-educated English girl.
Previous to our first sitting, on March 22nd, 1923, Stella knew nothing whatever about psychical research, and had never sat with a circle of investigators. Her one and only experience in matters psychic occurred at a spiritualistic circle which she attended in her
home town, from which she was removed for a fit of giggling: she was then eleven years old. Since that immature age the subject of psychic science has not had the slightest interest for her, which is all the more remarkable because she herself is frequently the centre of psychic activity without being aware of its meaning or importance.
Spontaneous telekinetic movements have occurred in her vicinity for some years past, though I have no knowledge that the phenomena were manifested at a very early period of her existence. In any case, the phenomena were of rare occurrence – perhaps two or three a year, and they nearly always took the form of (a) strong breezes; (b) telekinetic movements of small objects: (c) raps; (d) an occasional light or flash.
Curiously enough, the “breezes” nearly always occurred when flowers were near her. The fact that Stella is passionately fond of flowers may be an explanation. Sometimes when she is writing or sitting quietly at a table upon which is a vase of flowers, a strong but gentle breeze will sweep across the room, taking in its path the flowers, which bend under the strain.
This has happened on a hot, still night, when not the slightest ripple in the atmosphere has been noticeable in the open air. The same phenomenon has occurred in a closed room in the depth of winter, when every door and window has been tightly closed. This association of flowers with “breezes” may well be as much due to psychological action as to psychical. Some subconscious connection with flowers on the part of the medium may be the reason why these “psychic breezes” are induced when flowers are present.
Of spontaneous telekinetic phenomena, the sudden movement of a box of matches is the most curious. Sometimes, when Stella is about to place her hand on the box, it will suddenly jerk itself away from her as if it had been flicked by the finger.
Raps have occurred on her bedstead, and in various parts of the room in which she was present. The rarest of all spontaneous phenomena – which really happen very infrequently – are the “lights”. Perhaps on two or three occasions she has been mildly startled by slight percussive sounds, accompanied by blue sparks, which have manifested in her vicinity. From her description of these lights, and from those we have seen at the séances – assuming then to be of identical nature – they would seem strangely like the sparks produced by the electrical discharge across the points of a Ruhmkorff coil.
It might be asked: “What effect have these phenomena had upon the medium?” The answer to that query is: “Apparently none.” Stella thought them strange, of course; but beyond that, little concern
was felt by her as to these curious occurrences, and she grew up in complete ignorance of their real significance.
The facts I have just related were brought to my notice early last year, and after some discussion, I induced Stella to allow me to make an extensive series of experiments covering a period of several months. It has been stated that Stella received no payment for her services. This is not strictly correct, but she was paid no more for her sittings than she would have received at her ordinary occupation, which was that of hospital nurse and dispenser.
Before I give the details of the séances, I will describe the simple arrangements made for the experiments. In the first place, I installed a Nigretti and Zambra self-registering thermometer, which was fastened against an enclosed oak beam, high up, on the wall farthest away from the medium and not within reach of any member of the circle during the sittings.
The séance room was not heated before or during the sittings, and no sudden changes in the temperature were apparent except during the production of the phenomena. Scrupulous care was taken in setting the thermometer and recording the readings. Col. W.W. Hardwick (now Managing Editor of “Light”) checked the readings with me, and other sitters also noted the variations that had taken place during the sittings. I believe I am right in stating that no other investigators have systematically recorded, by instrumental means, the thermal effect produced during a long series of sittings.
On most occasions, the indicator of the thermometer has shown a drop in the temperature during the sittings. During the first few séances, when we were experimenting with various kinds of tables, and when telekinetic action was particularly strong, the mercury fell many degrees below that recorded at commencement of sittings. During the later stages of our experiments, when we had succeeded in diverting the power to the production of other forms of phenomena, the thermometer did not show that marked drop in the temperature recorded in the earlier séances.
The low temperatures appear to synchronize with violent manifestations. That this drop in temperature is a fact, and that the cool breezes experienced during sittings are a physical and not merely a psychological effect, I have conclusively proved by instrumental means. There is no question of error in observation or fraud involved in these experiments. As Sir Oliver Lodge (in a letter to me on this subject)
rightly remarks: “It is easy for hocus-pocus to send a thermometer up; but it is by no means easy to send it down.”
For convenience of reference, I will here insert the table of temperatures, which (with the other tables published in this paper), was compiled by Mr. F. Bligh Bond, F.R.I.B.A., and is taken from “Psychic Science” for October, 1923:
It will be noticed from above table that in every case the reading of the thermometer at the close of the sittings is higher than at the commencement. This is normal, and for two reasons: (a) Increase in average solar radiation towards midday; (b) Increase in warmth of room due to presence of sitters. The “Scientific American” in the January (1924) number, in commenting upon these experiments, says:
“Other workers have been more fortunate, and in Great Britain the body of investigators working with the medium Stella C. has had the singular good fortune of being able to prove categorically the existence of a manifestation that has been freely disputed – the cooling influence of the mediumistic trance upon the immediate neighborhood.
Séances have been held in a locked room and sealed, sufficiently insulated against all influencing of the temperature from without. Obviously, under the operation of known causes, the only thing that can happen to the room temperature is a slight rise, from the heat-radiation and combustion products of the numerous persons present. Actually this did occur in the end; the temperature at the close would always be slightly higher than at the beginning. But the verdict of the sitters’ senses, that the room was materially cooler during the mild portions of the séance, was checked by self-recording thermometers, and found to be in accordance with the facts. This cooling was always appreciable; in two or three instances, the bottom of the temperature curve, corresponding with the climax of the trance and the other phenomena, was no less than twenty degrees Fahrenheit below the initial figure. There seems no escaping the conclusion that we have here a genuine psychic phenomenon – that the medium in some way absorbs large quantities of energy from the surroundings, giving it back later on. By no possibility can the conclusion be avoided that this iron-clad series of observations is the event of the year in Psychic Science.”
It will be seen from the following table that the temperature rapidly cooled when violent manifestations were taking place. When the phenomena had been controlled somewhat, and the power diverted to other phases of telekinetic action, the fall of the mercury was not so great:
*N.B. - A brief expenditure of force with marked lowering of temperature would not affect the thermometer to any appreciable extent; whilst a long continued one, though possibly less in intensity, would of necessity influence the register.
The pulse-rate of the medium was very carefully recorded, by means of a chronometer with split seconds, before and after each sitting. Stella’s pulse was invariably much above the normal at commencement of sitting, and generally sub-normal at close. The foregoing remarks apply to the medium when she is in good health. On the one occasion when she was really unwell, and had just left a sick-bed to attend the sitting (No.11), her pulse-rate was quite normal and steady, which is extremely unusual. It has been suggested that the high pulse-rate was due to excitement or agitation on the part pf the medium; but we have no proofs that such is the case. Stella
possesses a particularly equable nature, and is not easily excited or disturbed. Her pulse-rate at normal times is high, and is usually only normal or sub-normal immediately after a sitting. On the other hand, the diminution in rapidity of the pulse is always accompanied by a pronounced coldness in the medium’s extremities, especially when she is in the trance state.
For convenience of comparison, the chart of the medium’s pulse-rate has been made out in the same order as the table of thermometer differences:
Unfortunately, the temperature of the medium was not taken during the earlier sittings. However, this was remedied later, and the subjoined figures show that Stella’s temperature was always higher at the close of a sitting, though the medium herself always complained of feeling cold.
For the lighting of the séance room, an apartment next to the office of “Light”, which had been placed at my disposal, we employed a 60-watt lamp in an ordinary photographic ruby well-glass. Sometimes this lamp was controlled by a rheostat. By its light it was possible to see plainly the limbs and features of the sitters. Occasionally, we had the added illumination from the Shadow Apparatus (vide infra) and red electric pocket torches were used for taking notes.
I have been criticised for not using a white light at the commencement of the sittings, but it must be remembered that I had been promised twelve sittings only, and I could not afford to run risks of wasting precious time under possibly non-productive conditions. At my sittings with Willy Sch., at Munich, Baron von Schrenck-Notzing consistently employed a red illumination, with the happiest of results; and I was determined, if possible, to duplicate the conditions of the Baron’s séance room, where I had seen such magnificent phenomena.
I was also ridiculed for using incense at the sittings, but its use was probably advantageous not only as a harmonizing element (like music), but because Stella was particularly fond of its perfume and used to burn it in her own home. I am not suggesting that the burning of incense at a sitting is helpful in the production of phenomena; but
it pleased Stella, which was my constant aim. It is possible, also, that the scent from the burning incense may have had the same effect upon Stella and her phenomena as the scent of the flowers, which undoubtedly were conducive to spontaneous telekinetic and other manifestations.
At our sittings with Willy at Munich, Baron von Schrenck-Notzing made almost constant use of a musical-box; so I followed this plan in my own sittings.
After our first sitting with Stella, I realized that we were getting important results, so I drew up a design for a chart and had a number of copies printed and numbered consecutively. Each chart or report contains the following data, collected at the sitting it represents: Date; place; times of commencement and finish of sitting; temperature of séance room at start and finish of sitting, with minimum fall of mercury; the state of health of medium; the medium’s pulse-rate at start and finish of sitting; the medium’s temperature (taken in the mouth) at start and finish of sitting; the state of the weather; the nature of the experiments tried; nature of control; the nature and intensity of the illuminant employed; the times the medium entered and left the trance state; the names of the sitters, and the order in which they sat. Though the barometric pressure was not recorded upon the charts, I studied it carefully at each sitting, but could draw no comparisons or conclusions.
The notes from which the data were compiled were taken by a sitter (usually Mr. H.W. Pugh), often outside the circle. The notes were then assembled and drawn up by me into the Official Report, within two hours of the conclusion of the sitting. The Report was then typed in triplicate on the printed charts. The Official Report of a sitting was then presented to the sitters, who were requested to read it through and sign if correct. Thus the report of every sitting was signed by each sitter taking part. Visitors to the circle were requested either to sign the report of their sitting or send in independent reports. Some members (e.g. Col. Hardwick and Mr. Pugh) of the circle also made out independent reports, copies of which they sent to me.
It will be gathered from the description of my method of recording the sittings, that the whole psychic history of Stella will be available as a continuous narrative. For so long as I have any influence with this medium, every séance will be recorded in the manner I have described in whatever part of the globe she may happen to be giving sittings.
The regular members of the circle comprised the following ladies and gentlemen: Miss Mercy Phillimore, General Secretary of the L.S.A.; Mrs. L.E. Pratt, who has had considerable experience in nursing; Mrs. E.J. Garrett; Miss Nellie Tom Gallon, the novelist; Lt.-Col. W.W. Hardwick, Managing Editor of “Light”; Mr. H.W. Pugh, a member of the S.P.R.; Mr. David Thomas, a retired barrister-at-law; and myself.
Visitors to the circle and others who had occasional sittings were: The Hon. Everard Feilding, Dr. V.J. Woolley, and Captain E.N.
Bennett, M.A., all members of the Council of the S.P.R.; Mr. E.J. Dingwall, Research Officer of the S.P.R.; Mr. Hewat Mckenzie; Mr. G.E. Wright; Dr. M. Rust; Mr. J.F.R. Stainer, K.C., legal adviser to the Foreign Office; Mr. A. Findlay, and others. All the sitters, including myself, were entire strangers to the medium previous to the commencement of the experiments.
It may be worthy of note that those sittings in which the more violent physical movements took place are those in which the masculine and feminine elements are either in balance numerically, or where the feminine is dominant in number. In the fifth sitting, most remarkable of all in this display of energy, the numbers are balanced.
After various experiments in the placing of the sitters forming the permanent circle, it was arranged that Mrs. L.E. Pratt, on account of her experience in nursing, should be placed on the right of the medium, controlling her right hand and foot. I took up a position on the left of the medium, controlling her left hand and foot. The remaining sitters took up various positions, and at every sitting we linked hands and kept contact with our feet. In the reports of the sittings, special controlling devices (such as nets, trellis barriers, etc.), will be described. The door of the séance room was always locked, and the key removed.
Never was a medium easier to control than Stella. She did exactly as she was requested, made no comments - in fact, she hardly spoke at all - and when entering the trance state (which was self-induced), she merely relapsed into unconsciousness, and gradually sank into the supporting arm of Mrs. Pratt. The trance state was always accompanied by weak respiration, and her hands became icy cold.
I will now give the verbatim signed Official Reports of the thirteen sittings we have had with Stella. For particulars of the variations in temperature, medium's pulse-rate, duration of sittings, etc., I must refer the reader to the tables. The 60-watt red lamp was invariably employed, and where the light is lowered or turned out, mention of the fact is made in the report. The health of the medium was consistently good with one exception which is mentioned.
The weather varied considerably at each sitting. It was usually dull, but at the sixth sitting, when it was very hot and sunny, an alleged "apport" was produced, the only instance recorded. Also, at
this sitting, the thermometer rose considerably, which was unusual, and this séance was notable for many flashed of light.
Sitters have taken their places, musical-box was started. Incense burning for first ten minutes. General conversation ensued. Twenty minutes from commencement, table gave violent dip, away from medium. All hands in light contact with top of table. (Weight of table, 431/2 lbs). From this point continuous agitation of table. Distinct vibrations felt through the woodwork of table by several sitters. Miss Phillimore stated that her right hand became somewhat numb and cold. Violent agitation of table; it reared on two legs, and rapidly moved across room. The table then oscillated, and was apparently controlled by an intelligent entity, as it dipped repeatedly at questions put to medium's control. More violent movements of the table, which appeared to be endeavouring to turn completely over. requests were then made to medium's control to levitate table, and raise all four legs from floor. Proofs of attempts were apparent, and it was thought that with less illumination, the "force" controlling the table would succeed.
The red lights were then switched off, the room being in darkness except for a little daylight through the chinks of the window screen. The extra power was very marked, the manifestations including violent agitations of the table which was completely levitated from the floor three times, the sitters' hands being flat on the table all the time. It was agreed that at the last levitation of the table, all four legs were raised at least two inches from the floor. This concluded the sitting.
At one portion of the sitting, Mrs. Garrett stated that she saw a column of pale phosphorescent light just behind the medium. A phenomenon worthy of note was the rapid fall of thermometer, the mercury dropping no fewer than eleven degrees. The table used during this first sitting with Stella C. belonged formerly to Henry Slade, the medium, and will be called in future the "Slade table." The medium was not entranced at any period of this sitting, but felt very tires a few hours after its conclusion.
The "Slade" table used is a double flap Canterbury table employed by "Dr." Slade in his now classic experiments. For many years it has been used as an ordinary writing table at the offices of the L.S.A. The dimensions of table are: Top, 3 ft. 71/2 ins. x 3 ft. 23/4
ins. Thickness, 3/4 in. Height of table, 2 ft. 43/8 ins. Legs, four in number, turned and tapered. Material, oak. Weight, 431/2 lbs. The two movable legs are held in place by struts, to support the flaps.
Very soon after the sitters had taken their places, and musical-box had been started, the "Slade table" gave several "shivers," the vibrations being felt by each sitter present. During the whole of this sitting these vibrations were present, alternating with a peculiar pulsating or tremulous effect, as if the table were imbued with life - a very curious sensation. It will save time in recording this séance if it is stated that the table was in a state of almost continuous motion during the whole of this sitting. In the full strength of the red light (by the rays of which all the sitters' hands were plainly visible all the time), the table was completely levitated six times, probably eight times, the last twice being doubtful. One levitation was especially good, the table, when in the air, moving laterally to the extent of about three feet. It was not found necessary during this sitting to dim the light by means of the rheostat, and it was thought that the same phenomena would have been produced in a much brighter light.
One phenomenon noticed and commented upon by every sitter was the dimming (as if a heavy shadow had fallen across it), of Mrs. Garrett's left hand. All the sitters' hands were lightly placed flat on the table; all were visible; and all received the same amount of illumination. Yet, Mrs. Garrett's left hand became gradually obscured by some substance (ectoplasm?), and just as gradually the shadow or "substance" passed away. Very soon after this phenomenon Mrs. Garrett became highly nervous and susceptible to the influences at work in the circle; but she shortly became calmer and the phase passed away. At 12:15 the medium became very sleepy and stated that her senses appeared to be "far away." Miss Phillimore led her to a chair, where she recovered in fifteen minutes, after which she again took her place in the circle. The sitters were standing when the above changes came over the medium. Had the medium been sitting, it is highly probable she would have become entranced, as her condition at this juncture was highly suggestive of the entry into the trance state. During the period the medium was resting, the "power" or "force" ay work almost entirely disappeared.
When the medium again took her place in the circle the power revived, and from this time (12:30), raps were of frequent occurrence.
Questions put to the medium's "control" were answered intelligently by means of raps, and once the table lurched twice in affirmative answers to questions put by Colonel Hardwick. These "lurches" were given when only the fingers of Miss Phillimore and Colonel Hardwick were on the table, from which the other sitters were quite away. The so-called psychic breezes were experienced by all the sitters, it being noticeably cooler at one portion of the sitting. That this effect was physical and not psychological is proved by the thermometer dropping to below 50 degrees, a fall of 11.5 degrees below normal temperature. The thermometer readings were checked before and after by Col. Hardwick and Mr. Price. At this and the last sitting, the medium was placed at corner of table and it was physically impossible for her to normally control the table in any way. Her pulse dropped considerably at end of sitting, and Col. Hardwick stated that the beats were extremely irregular and variable. Every sitter complained of exhaustion and fatigue at end of sitting. Incense was used at commencement of sitting.
The outstanding feature of this sitting is the peculiar pulsating effect which contact with the table produced upon the hands of the sitters. To me, the table-top felt as if it were charged with running water, the rhythmical effect of the "waves" being particularly noticeable. I remember wondering at the time whether the "dowser" or water-diviner experienced the same kind of tremulous vibration in his hazel twig.
Shortly after white light turned out, and musical-box started, the "Slade table" commenced to turn, compelling the sitters to rise. Very soon afterwards the table levitated three times, one levitation was of several seconds' duration. At this juncture, the séance room felt decidedly cooler. That this sensation was real and not fancied is proved by the thermometer dropping 7.5 degrees (checked by Col. Hardwick and Mr. Price) during the sitting. The "force" or "control" operating the table was then asked to quieten its movements, and to manifest itself by giving intelligent raps. These raps were quickly obtained, and some questions were put to "control" but somewhat confused answers were given in reply. It was then ascertained by further questions put to "control" that it would be better for No. 1 sitter (Mr. Price) to change places with No. 4 sitter, (Mrs.
Garrett). This was done, but no marked improvement in power was noticed. It was then suggested by some of the sitters that a lighter table be used for the experiments. This was agreed to, and the "Crawford" table was fetched from an adjoining room. This "Crawford" table was (it is in existence no longer!) a six-sided table with three legs, composed entirely of wood (deal), the top, legs, and lower supporting platform being keyed and pegged together, and strongly constructed.
The sitters and medium having formed themselves into a circle around the table with only the tips of their fingers touching the table-top, great power was quickly developed, and movements of the table rapidly followed. The table was then completely levitated several times, remaining in the air for several seconds upon each occasion. Once the table rose completely above the heads of the sitters, some of whom had to rise in order to keep contact with it. During this levitation, the lower platform of the table struck the chin of Mr. Price (who had remained seated, and had lost contact), and came to rest on his chest. The sitters then removed their hands from the table, only the finger-tips of the medium remaining upon it. Movements of the table still continued. The sitters again placed their fingers on the table top, when still further power was developed with increasing violence, two of the legs breaking away from the table with a percussion-like noise as the fracture occurred. At this juncture (12:27) Mr. Pugh excused himself and the séance continued without him. Col. Hardwick, Mrs. Pratt, and Mr. Price still retained their fingers upon the top of the table, which was resting on the remaining leg. Suddenly, without warning, and with a violent snap, the table top broke into two pieces; at the same time the remaining leg and other supports of the table crumpled up, THE WHOLE BEING REDUCED TO WHAT IS LITTLE MORE THAN MATCHWOOD. The sitting then concluded.
The full red light was used throughout the sitting, except when a little daylight was allowed in the room. In the white light the table continued to move, but no levitation occurred. The medium became very sleepy during the latter portion of the sitting, and other sitters complained of exhaustion - but not to the same extent experienced at the last sitting. When the table-top split in two, Mrs. Pratt stated that she felt the "force" run up the table, culminating at the top where the fracture had occurred.
The "Crawford" table was a hexagonal table, with top and lower platform made of deal, with three legs; all its parts being keyed
and pegged together, and of strong construction. The top, which was built of sectors, measured 2 ft. 3 ins., and was seven-sixteenths of an inch thick. The height was 2 ft. 3 ins., the legs 11/2 ins. square, the triangular bracings 11/2 x 3/4 in., all parts blocked and glued.
Col. Hardwick, in his report of this sitting, says that the split in the table top was traced to a point near Mrs. Pratt. When balanced on its sole remaining leg, it was held steady by the sitters' fingers. First one leg broke away, he says, with a part of the lower platform; the second following after about a minute, with the rest of the platform. The lower platform was thus also rent in twain. At this point, Col. Hardwick says that only three sitters retained a light contact, and it was under these conditions that the third leg broke away, and the top split into pieces, the whole collapsing to the ground. "Actually," says Col. Hardwick, "this last break was such that not only would some considerable pressure have been necessary, but the top would have required the use of two hands with a wrenching action to split it into the parts found when daylight was admitted."
The full red light was used throughout this sitting. My own impressions of the rending of the "Crawford" table were as if a succession of lightning discharges (but without the flashes) had struck the table. It was an extraordinary sensation to feel a strong wooden structure crumpling up beneath one's hands; the table appeared to melt away.
Shortly after the members of the circle were seated, the "Slade" table commenced to move, compelling the sitters to rise. The movements continued for a considerable period. At one time, the table kept up a curious motion, rapidly revolving or spinning upon the point of one leg in such a way that the sitters had to follow the gyrations. The "control" or "Force" was requested to reverse the motion of the table. This was done immediately, the rotating motion continuing for a considerable time. After various other movements of the table, the sitters reseated themselves, and the "control" or entity was asked to manifest itself by means of raps. This was done, and a more or less coherent story was obtained by the "force" rapping once for a "no," twice for "doubtful," three times for "yes," and a rap when the correct letter of the alphabet was mentioned. It was ascertained by this method - as far as this method can be trusted - that the "control" at work was named "Palma," and was a child, sex unascertained. By the same means it was learned that "Palma" was responsible for the
(The plates occupy pp.321-336)
movements of the table; that it knew the medium; that it could see the medium and all the sitters except Miss Phillimore, Miss Tom Gallon, and Mr. Price. It is worthy of note that these three sitters were the only ones in the immediate vicinity of the medium.
At 12:30 the medium became very sleepy, and in what appeared to be a semi-trance stated to Miss Phillimore, who questioned her, that she saw before her, as a vision, a newspaper, which she said was the "Daily Mail" and which she said was dated "May 19th, 1923." Miss Phillimore particularly asked her whether the year 1923 was correct, and the medium said "yes." The medium then said that she could see in large letters the name "Andrew Salt." She stated also that she had a "sensation" of seeing a boy falling, and a man (who appeared to be a doctor), bending over him, and pouring a white powder out of a bottle or tin which he was giving the boy. No one in the circle knew the name of Andrew Salt, and little importance was attached to the name or "vision". Shortly after, Mrs. Garrett stated that she saw blue and red lights under the table near the medium's feet. Miss Gallon stated that she saw them, and some of the other sitters thought the lights were visible to them. Towards the end of the sitting, when the table was at rest, a violent pulsating or throbbing effect in the table top was felt by all the sitters. (See Report of Sitting No. 2.) At the end of the table nearer the medium, the pulsations were more marked, and were accompanied by a sensation as of something pushing the underside of the flap. The upward or lifting motion of the flap was distinctly felt by Mrs. Pratt, Miss Phillimore, and Mr. Price. The finger-tips of all the sitters were lightly placed on the surface of the table when this last phenomenon occurred. Mr. Pugh had to leave the circle at 11:50.
A portion of the sitting was occupied with the testing of fairly strong daylight on the phenomena. It was found that the table movements slowed down considerably, and there was a decided loss of power. Incense was burned at commencement of sitting. It was noticed that the séance-room did not get appreciably cooler during the sitting. The thermometer actually dropped 4 degrees below the temperature recorded at the commencement of sitting, and 8 degrees below the maximum taken at the end of the sitting. It was thought that the close "heavy" weather may have had something to do with the warmer temperature of the room.
Remarks - A Spontaneous Prediction Verified
The fourth sitting, which took place on the 12th of April, was
remarkable for an example of a type of mediumship on the part of Stella quite foreign to that which she has all along exhibited. It is an example, and a most interesting one, of "prognosis" - foreknowledge of a coming event unknown to, and apparently unknowable by, either medium or sitters. There had been some "table" movements and attempts to get the alphabet by raps. A "control" - "Palma" - announced her (or his) presence, that of a child, sex unascertained. This "control" claimed to know the medium, and to be able to see all the sitters except myself and two others.
At 12:30 P.M., the medium lapsed into semi-trance, and while in this condition stated to Miss Phillimore, who had questioned her, that she saw before her, as in a vision, a copy of the "Daily Mail," with the date "May 19th, 1923." In answer to enquiry as to the correctness of this date, the medium affirmed this, and added that she could see in large letters the name "Andrew Salt." She also said she had a "sensation" of seeing a boy falling, and a man, apparently a doctor, bending over him and pouring a white powder out of a bottle or tin, which powder he was giving to the boy. No one in the circle recognized the name "Andrew Salt" and but little importance was attached to the vision or its details. All were duly recorded, however, and the official record signed by all of the sitters who retained notes of the occurrence. It was inferred at the time that "Andrew Salt" was the name of a man. On the relation of her vision by the medium, several sitters intervened with questions, such as - "What are they doing?" "What is the man doing to him?" "Can you see any more?" etc., - which appeared to distress the medium, who said she "thought the man was bending over the boy, and giving him some powder," but she could see no more - the vision had vanished.
The first part was given without effort, but the questions seemed to cause the medium some anxiety to see, and perhaps inclined her to use her own imagination. It should be noted that the vision was impromptu, and not occasioned by any previous occurrences, or by any remark by sitters. It is, in fact, the sole occasion on which any prediction has been made by this medium, and it is the only time that the medium, on her own initiative, has broken silence during the sittings.
Thirty-seven days later, that is to say, on the 19th of May, 1923, the front page of the "Daily Mail" was occupied by a full-page advertisement of ANDREWS' LIVER SALT, the prominent feature of which is the picture of a distressed boy who has spilled a tin of the salt, which is scattered on the ground, and falling from the plate he is carrying. The words "ANDREWS' LIVER SALT" are on the picture, and the advertisement, which offers £100 for a title, states
that the new poster, of which this picture is a reproduction, was displayed during the month of May on hoardings and vans throughout the United Kingdom. The makers of the salt affirm that until the month of May, no exhibition of the poster in question had taken place. The "Daily Mail" affirms that until about three weeks before the date of the advertisement (say, April 28) there had been no intention communicated to them to use this picture, but the intention of the advertisers was to employ an "Abraham Lincoln" copy (published eventually on the front page of the "Daily Mail" of August 10th, 1923), the date being booked for the display of this.
Consequently, if we discount the incredible supposition that a young girl, permanently resident in London, had somehow become aware that a firm in Newcastle-upon-Tyne had prepared a poster of this nature (if, indeed, they had it in reserve on April 12), and that they contemplated to substitute this for another picture already arranged for on this date five weeks ahead; and the equally incredible theory that this young girl had obtained details of the substitute poster - there still remains the fact that the substitution was not carried into effect until more than a fortnight after the "vision."
The prediction is right, we may say, in ten definite points, namely, (1) The "Daily Mail," (2) the date - May 19th, (3) the name of the vendor of the proprietary article, "Andrew(s)," (4) the name of the article, "Salt," (5) the "large letters," (6) the boy, (7) the "falling" - or "letting fall," (8) the "tin," (9) the "white powder," (10) the "being poured out"; and I may perhaps add an eleventh verification - for the suggestion of a "doctor" standing behind the boy looks very much like a symbolic visualization (as often happens in a dream) of the medicinal nature of the article advertised as a "liver" salt. But in view of the boy's agonized look of dismay, the idea might not unnaturally suggest itself that "Someone" will be waiting for him with a stick, to correct his indiscretion; and this is borne out in the winning title, first published on the 6th of September, 1923, which is: "He'll get it - will you?"
I have no explanation or hypothesis to offer for the above amazing case of prevision. The affair created very considerable interest in the "Daily Mail" office, and I believe they held an Editorial Council concerning what action should be taken in the matter. The Editor of the "Mail" writes that he is "quite convinced by the evidence submitted," but if he were to have the case written up, 90% of his readers would pit it down as an "advertising dodge"; with which I agree. Verily, truth is stranger than fiction.
The sitters have taken their places at table, incense lighted, and musical-box started, the "Slade" table began to move almost immediately. It then started turning (compelling the sitters to leave their chairs), and was at once levitated to the height of several inches. Within the next twenty minutes the table was completely levitated at least six times - once for six seconds at a height of about six inches. During these levitations, which took place in the full light of the 60-watt red lamp, the finger-tips only of the sitters were on the table top. Ceaseless movement of the table followed, and once it turned over; and then, upon request, righted itself. After these violent manifestations, it was decided (12:10) to re-form the circle round the table, and the "control" or "entity" (Palma?) was asked to manifest itself by means of raps. "Palma" promised it would. Immediately the sitters had taken their places, the raps commenced and were at once heard on various parts of the table, chairs, walls, etc. At one period of this demonstration four distinct varieties of raps were heard simultaneously in different parts of the table, etc. The red light was then switched off, as it was thought that the power might increase in the dark. Except for another variety of rap in the centre of table, no other effect was noticed, and the red light was switched on again.
The "control" (or "controls") was then asked to move table without contact of medium or sitters, if it could possibly do so. An indistinct answer was given (by means of raps), and it was decided to try. The sitters and medium pushed their chairs well away from the table; linked hands and held them high in the air; and without the slightest contact with sitters or medium, the table (weight 431/2 lbs.), with a few preliminary raps and creaks, slowly moved. These movements without contact were kept up for nearly ten minutes, the table moving in every direction, with decided attempts at levitation. After these telekinetic manifestations had died down, the sitters' hands were again placed on the table and an increase of power was at once noticed. The table started swaying and rocking violently, pushing Colonel Hardwick up to the chairs that were against the wall, thus pinning him there. During one of these violent manifestations, the table was poised upon two legs, and the combined efforts of Captain Bennett (exerting his entire strength), who was pushing the table-top in a downward direction, and the other sitters, who were trying to pull the table down, could not shift the table from its poise on two legs. In other
words, the combined strength of the circle, plus gravity, could not overcome the power that was raising the table. Mr. Price recalled the fact that he had seen a similar phenomenon at Munich through the mediumship of Willy Sch., when the combined strength of Baron von Schrenck-Notzing and Mr. E.J. Dingwall could not keep in contact with the floor a low, wooden table which became smashed during the conflict. Dr. Crawford's theory of "psychic rods" exuding from the medium and operating on the cantilever system would seem to fit in with this phase of telekinesis. At this stage (12:50) of the sitting the power became stronger and more violent. The table again turned completely over; dashed to one of the walls where it knocked over two chairs and the musical-box; became entangled in the two bentwood chairs; undid the struts supporting the two flaps, which consequently fell down; nearly knocked Miss Phillimore over; rose and struck Mrs. Garrett's head; and was so evidently bent upon destroying itself and the two chairs with which it was entangled, that it was unanimously decided to stop the sitting by letting in the daylight via the door. This was done, and the power almost ceased. Then door was closed again, and three of the sitters, placing their hands lightly upon the table (which was upside down), managed to restore it to its normal condition by means of the power not yet dissipated.
At one portion of the sitting (when table moved of its own volition), the séance room became very cold. The index of the thermometer registered as low as 43 degrees, which raises the question whether some psycho-mechanical power (independently of the fall in the temperature), not not responsible for the low reading. Some of the sitters thought they saw pencils of blue light beneath the table and around the medium, who became very sleepy towards the close of the sitting. The extreme power produced at this sitting may have been the result of the inclusion in the circle of two more sitters who had not taken part in the previous sittings (Captain Bennett and Mr. J.F.R. Stainer, K.C.).
Our fifth sitting was truly remarkable for the violence of the telekinetic action, and for the extraordinary drop in the temperature, scrupulous care being taken by Col. Hardwick and myself in the observation and checking of the readings of the thermometer. Col. Hardwick, in his independent report of this sitting, says:
"The hands were joined outside the table, and slight movements and attempts at levitation were given. Contact was then renewed with remarkable results, much power having apparently been gathered during a non-contact. The table tipped towards me as usual, and being tired of this edge going to the floor, I thrust in my knees, on which
the table rested with increasing force. It then began to hammer at my knees until the blows became painful, and I consequently removed them, expecting the table to crash to the floor. My knees were red from the blows when I got home some two hours after, and I can still feel the effect. To my surprise, the table did not go beyond the position where my knees would have been, but it made one or two smart blows as if to ensure that they had been removed.
"Considering the weight and awkwardness of the table (it was the classic 'Slade' table) it would have required a very strong and tall man to produce the violent movements experienced, in addition to which he would have required full freedom of movement - an obvious impossibility under the circumstances."
The development of power manifested in the levitation of the heavy "Slade" table in the fifth and other sittings, and the resistance to the force of gravity recorded, compel attention to the enquiry as to the locus of the motive power, and its mode of application. Two alternatives suggest themselves:
(1) That the force was of the nature of external pressure applied to the under surfaces of the table, by telekinetic power. This view presupposes something in the nature of ectoplasmic rods having a fulcrum or support either in the bodies of medium and sitters, or on the floor of the room.
(2) That the force was of the nature of internal traction, applied to the molecules or cells of the material, by "endokinetic" powers, i.e., power of movement from within. This view presupposes an accumulation of psycho-psychical or ætheric energy, acting more in the manner of electricity or magnetism, and having its motive centre and fulcrum in a region outside space.
e first theory is the more obvious, since "ectoplasmic rods" have been observed to lift and move light objects; but the discovery of a fulcrum constitutes a difficulty. This theory does not, however, exclude the second.
The second theory will be, at first sight, less simple to conceive and easy to entertain; but if other facts are in evidence pointing conclusively to interior strains and stresses in the woodwork, then we have ground for considering it. Moreover, unless we can otherwise account for evidences of internal tension in the woodwork, we may be compelled to accept this hypothesis.
The table used at this sitting is a new one, specially designed by
Col. Hardwick, and will be termed the "Hardwick" table. Its weight is approximately eighteen pounds, and has sides three inches deep, flush with the edge of table-top. This quite prevents the medium or sitters placing their fingers under the table, and thus unconsciously raising it. The top is of oak, and the table is very substantially built.
Mr. Pugh, with a red electric lamp, was outside the circle, taking notes. The sitters having arranged themselves around the "Hardwick" table, the séance commenced. Almost immediately, (11:42), the table commenced to move, and started to wander around the room, compelling the sitters to relinquish their seats, which they pushed back to the walls. Swaying and lurching upon the part of the table, with attempts at levitation.
At this period (11:45), when all the sitters' hands were upon the table, a large sprig of lilac, in full bloom, with leaves and flowers quite fresh and uncrumpled, fell upon the table, striking two of the sitters (Mrs. Pratt and Col. Hardwick). The sprig measured 161/2 inches long. The nearest lilac was in a vase in the library, on the floor beneath. The door of the séance room was locked, and no one had brought any lilac into the room. About an hour previous, a vase of lilac had been removed from the séance room, and placed in the library, and it is possible that a piece of the blossom had been left in the room. If this be so, no explanation is forthcoming as to how it apparently fell from the ceiling on to the table-top. The hands of the sitters were visible all the time. By means of the table tipping, it was afterwards ascertained from a control, "Hendras" (?), that the lilac sprig was an "apport," and another "apport," in the shape of a boot, was promised for the next sitting...
After the fall of the lilac sprig, the table was moved (11:55) and rocked with considerable force, and several complete levitations were accomplished, the table finally turning over with its four legs upwards. In this most difficult position, again the table rose completely, some of the levitations being of 4, 5, or 6 seconds' duration. The medium was then asked to place her fingers on the two ends of the table nearest to her; this she did, the sitters on both sides of her each placing one hand upon hers. Thus there were four hands only lightly placed on the tips of the legs of one end of the table. The other sitters refrained from touching the table in any way. Again the table was levitated in this most difficult position, an extra red lamp being used for this phenomenon. The table was then set upright in its normal position, all hands linked, and the sitters right away from table. A bright red electric light was placed on the floor, illuminating the sitters' feet which were in contact. After some minutes' duration, the table slowly
moved, without any contact from sitters or medium. It was then asked to move in various directions (e.g., towards Mr. Price), and it immediately responded.
The circle was then re-formed, and raps were asked for. These were given in various places on chairs, table and wall. The Hon. Everard Feilding then asked the "control" to imitate certain varieties of raps which he gave, such as the postman's knock, and other complicated raps. The specimen raps were immediately and accurately copied by the "control(s)," thus proving them the work of an intelligent entity. Mr. Pugh likewise knocked and was imitated.
It was then decided to ask the "controls" to manifest by means of the tipping of the table. (At this juncture, the red light was switched off, in the endeavour to get more power.) The table at once responded and very shortly after a bright blue electric(?) flash appeared over the head of the medium. These flashes were repeated six times before the termination of the sitting; four were under the table, two above the medium, (one to the right of her). All the flashes were visible to all the sitters. The writer and some others are of the opinion that the "flashes" were of a distinct electric blue. Other sitters, including Mr. Feilding, think that the lights were yellow. One "flash" made a crackling or percussive sound suggestive of electrical origin. No beams of light appeared to come from the flashes, which were quite unlike the rays from an electric torch. During the period of the "flashes," the table spelled out a number of names such as "Eileen" (Mrs. Garrett's Christian name); "Hendras" (a "control" who said he was helping "Palma," "who was a girl"); and other words. The table, through the "control," also "tipped" out a message to the effect that the lilac had been brought from the library, and another "apport," a boot, was promised for the next sitting....The medium felt somewhat tired and very sleepy. The temperature, according to the thermometer, rose seven degrees. This is the first sitting where this rise has been experienced, the temperature usually returning at the close of the sitting to a figure slightly higher than that recorded at the start. A suggested explanation is that the "flashes," if due to electrical origin, were the means of sustaining, if not increasing, the temperature of the room. Incense was used at the start of the sitting. At 1:45 the sitters decided to terminate the séance.
The sprig of lilac "apport" must not be taken too seriously. There had been a vase of these flowers in the room previous to the sitting, but it was removed to the library on the lower floor. After the
removal of the vase, Col. Hardwick and myself carefully cleared the room of everything not needed at the séance, and the large lilac sprig was not in evidence then. But how it arrived on the séance table is a mystery. It appeared to me to drop straight down from the ceiling, and arrived quite fresh and uncrumpled. If the flowers did not arrive in a normal manner, - and I do not see how this is possible, as every hand was visible upon the table, under the good red light - it may have been a genuine levitation from within the room. Once again we have the association of "flowers" with Stella.
Red light full on. Incense burning. Musical-box playing. For this sitting it was decided to ask the "control(s)" or entity at work to manifest upon a number of musical instruments, writing-pad, etc., and not to attempt levitation. This was done. Just previous to the sitters taking their places, a celluloid trumpet, an aluminium bell, a mouth-organ, a set of metal Pan pipes, a writing-pad (signed by Mr. Pugh as being free from pencil marks), and one gold and one wooden pencil were put under the "Slade" table, at which the sitters sat. The articles were put in a certain order, and a diagram was made by which it could be ascertained if any of the objects had been displaced.
Immediately after sitting commenced, the table moved somewhat (11:10), and faint raps were heard. Soon after, scratches were heard under the table, followed by movement of the hand-bell. It should be pointed out that all hands were visible upon the table, all the time, and that the hands were linked up. The feet of the sitters were touching, thus being controlled. Very soon after the bell moved, two or three notes upon the Pan pipes or mouth-organ were heard. Soon afterwards, a loud chord upon the mouth-organ simultaneously with a brilliant yellow flash over and behind the head of Miss Tom Gallon, who sat at the side of the table opposite the medium. In order to see the flashes better, it was decided to turn out the red light. This was done (11:20). Again a chord upon the mouth-organ, followed by two blue flashes under the table; again followed by a chord upon the mouth-organ and a tinkle upon the aluminium bell. It will save repetition if it is stated that the mouth-organ was played upon eight or nine times, ONCE AT REQUEST. The bell was touched twice, and the Pan pipes (we think), once. In all, six flashes were noticed, three under the table, two round about the head of the medium, and one over the head of Miss Tom Gallon. One blue flash over the head of the medium
was described by Mr. Pugh as being about the size of a half-a-crown or a little larger, with ray-like scintillations pouring from it.
Mrs. Garrett, who is clairvoyant, stated that she saw an ectoplasmic cloud, hovering over the head of the medium, which culminated in a blue flash. Mrs. Garrett then stated she saw, standing behind the medium, a tall girl, of Italian aspect, with two plaits hanging down her back, and wearing a bright robe. The girl was of a swarthy complexion, with thick lips and a flat nose. It is suggested that this girl is the medium's "control," "Palma." Some of the flashes seen appeared with a percussive sound. Mr. G.E. Wright stated that he felt a "psychic breeze" pass four or five times along the surface of the table. During the above manifestations, paper was rustled and other movements were heard beneath the table. For the first time at any sitting, medium became completely entranced (11:35). Her hands became icy cold, and respiration weak. In this condition she remained till 12 o'clock, when the red light was restored. The medium complained of feeling very cold. At this period, the "control" was asked to manifest itself by means of raps. Several were given, and specimen raps were accurately and immediately copied. The table also spelled out the information that "Palma" was the "control" who had played upon the mouth-organ, Pan pipes, etc. The sitters then sat back from the table, still with hands linked and with feet touching, and movements without contact were asked for. Two movements were given with raps.
At the close of the sitting, the objects under the table were examined, and all had been moved. The trumpet was knocked over; organ moved to the other side of pile; pencils moved; corner of writing-pad turned up, AND SEVERAL PENCIL MARKS WERE FOUND UPON THE SIGNED PAPER. These marks include crosses, and what might be a "P." reversed. The temperature dropped 1.5 degrees below that recorded at commencement of sitting.
The reader of these records cannot fail to notice that as Stella became more deeply entranced, so the phenomena became more diversified. In this seventh sitting, we have manifestations upon wind instruments, pencil marks upon a signed pad, flashes, etc., under conditions which absolutely precluded fraud. But it was the very nature of these effects, and the extraordinary phenomena that we witnessed, that decided us to stiffen the control still more. Mr. Pugh said he would design a table that would meet our requirements.
This, the eighth sitting with Stella C., marked a great advance in the control of the medium and sitters. The table used was a new one; was designed by Mr. H.W. Pugh, and will be known as the "Pugh" table. (For full description, see below.) It is actually two tables - an inner and an outer, the inner table being quite incapable of being levitated except by some force applied beneath it. It is physically impossible for any of the sitters to raise this inner table from its upper surface; and to stop any manipulation from the underside, the inner table is surrounded by four trellis gates which prevent the medium or sitters from approaching it in any way. These four trellis gates for a cage in which various articles are placed previous to the commencement of a sitting. The inner table has a trap-door (in its top), eight inches square, the hinged flap of which is flush with the surface of the table, and is incapable of being opened except by an upward pressure from within the cage. The following articles were placed inside the cage (some on the floor and some on a shelf midway between floor and table-top), previous to the commencement of the sitting, and a diagram was made of their arrangement: A set of metal Pan pipes; an autoharp; a squeaking rubber dog; a mouth-organ; a celluloid trumpet; a baby's rattle with bells; a toy piano; aluminium hand-bell; a pan of modeller's clay; a signed writing-pad and a lead-pencil.
Almost immediately after the sitting commenced (musical-box playing, incense burning, red light on), cold breezes were distinctly felt by all the sitters - some on hands, others on faces (11:5). These cold sensations continued intermittently for a considerable period. Then the medium became entranced (11:25). Soon after, at 11:30, the mouth-organ in cage was blown in two different chords. (At this point, light put out.) At 11:33, 11:35, 11:40, 11:45, mouth-organ was again blown, mostly in one chord. At 11:55 several strings of the autoharp in cage were struck twice. At 11:45, a small blue light over medium's head. At 11:59, a bright blue light. At 12 o'clock another flash. At 12:1, a very bright light over Stella, with crackling noise. At 12:2 TRUMPET BLOWN. At 12:5, two blue lights, with crackling noise. At 12:7, mouth-organ blown. (At this juncture, Mr. Pugh ceased taking exact times, as the light from his bright red torch was thought to be disturbing to the phenomena.) Between 12:7 and 12:45, when the sitting was concluded, the following phenomena took place: Hinged flap in centre table was opened and closed several times. When open, a red silk handkerchief was placed over aperture of trap-door, and Mr. Moger and Mr. Pugh each placed
a hand over silk. Twice they felt finger-like forms, from two different directions, under the silk handkerchief. Mrs. Pratt had her hand touched by what she described as a very cold hand. The rattle was thrown out of cage (from the side farthest from the medium), over Mr. Pugh's shoulder on to the table. A creaking of the inner table was followed by violent movements of the structure, and a decided attempt to levitate itself. Trap again opened, and was closed from outside by some unseen force. Then blue flashes inside cage, the lights being very visible through the flap which had again been opened by the "force" or entity at work. Again the flap was opened and rubber dog was handed out of trap door by the invisible "force" at work. Then more movements of the table. At this juncture, (12:45), the medium came out of her trance, and little else followed. The sitting concluded at 12:55. The so-called "psychic breezes" were felt intermittently during the whole of the sitting. The mercury dropped only .5 degree below that recorded at commencement of sitting. The medium's pulse again dropped considerably at end of sitting. The temperature of medium was sub-normal at start of sitting, normal at finish. Throughout the sitting the sitters' hands were on the table, and in contact, their feet being controlled in a similar manner. The medium became very cold during the entranced state, with shivering fits. Many raps were heard during the sitting. Several articles in cage had been moved, and pad was written on. The trumpet, which had been stood on end, was found on its side.
The "Pugh" table used at the above sitting may more properly be described as two tables - an inner and an outer table. The outer table is 44 inches square, and in the centre of its top is cut a square hole, the edges of which slope at an angle of 45 degrees. Into this hollow space, 23 inches square, is inserted an inner table, the edges of which also slope at an angle of 45 degrees, so that the outer edges of the inner table rest upon the inner edges of the outer table, and the tops of the two tables present one flat surface.
Inside the four legs of the outer table, and outside the four legs of the inner table are placed four panels of wooden trellis with a clearance of two inches between them and the legs of the inner table. These panels reach from the floor to the under surface of the outer table, and make it impossible for the medium or sitters to move the inner table with their feet or knees. The only part of the inner table which can be touched is its upper surface, and the tables are so adjusted that the only movement possible to the inner table is an upward vertical move-
ment caused by a force operating from below within the wooden cage formed by the trellis panels.
At a height of 17 inches from the floor, the inner table has a shelf covering an area approximately equal to its top, and in its top it has a hinged trap-door which can either be fastened or left free to open upwards. It cannot be opened downwards.
The whole of the table except the surface of the top of the inner table, are stained brown. By this means, the movements of the inner table are plainly visible. Height of table: 293/4 inches. Thickness of table, nine-sixteenths of an inch. Trap-door is eight inches square. Weight, about forty pounds.
The use of the "Pugh" table seemed to stimulate the "force" responsible for the phenomena, and some very interesting results were witnessed. The trap-door in the table-top, - which was the only exit from the cage formed by the trellis gates - proved very effective, and a decided attempt at materializing hands or "pseudopods" was made.
The table used for this séance was the combination "Pugh" structure, with the addition of a length of gauze net (very similar to that used by Baron von Schrenck in the in the Willy S. experiments), reaching from the table top to the ground. This gauze was half-way round the outside of the outer table, and in front of the medium, but was lifted upon her knees in order that any power coming from her might not be obstructed. Mr. Pugh took the notes and times. The usual musical toys (see Sitting No.8) and signed writing-pad, etc., were put into the trellis cage, and a feature of this sitting was the employment, for the first time, of the Telekinetoscope (for a description of this apparatus, see below), an electrical instrument working within a soap bubble. Soon after the commencement of the sitting, Col. Hardwick, in a little speech to "Palma" (which recalled to Mr. Price a similar appeal by Baron von Schrenck-Notzing to "Minna," Willy Schneider's "control"), explained the working of the Telekinetoscope, and asked her to manifest by its means, if possible. Three responding raps suggested that "Palma" would do her best.
At start of sitting, musical-box playing, incense burning, red light full on. Immediately the sitters had settled themselves, raps commenced to be heard in various parts of table, chairs, etc. Soon after, some of the sitters stated that they experienced a sensation of cool air circulating along the surface of the table. It was asked whether
"Palma" was helping, and an answer rapped in the affirmative. After these preliminaries, ( at (11:40), the red light was turned out. The medium had already become entranced (11:25); at 11:45, mouth-organ blown; at 11:50, hand-bell rang; at 11:51, trap-door opened a little; at 11:53, mouth-organ blown in different key; at 11:55, trap-door lifted; at 11:58, mouth-organ blown; at 12:5, blue light near ceiling; at 12:10, blue light over medium; (Mr. Pugh here ceased taking exact time. It should be noted that the hands of all the sitters were on the table, linked up, and their feet in contact.) Soon after, many movements under table, in cage, in which two blue flashes were prominent. Miss Gallon was touched on hand, and Mrs. Pratt was touched twice on her hand.
Then trap-door opened completely, and Miss Phillimore, Mr. Pugh, and Mr. Price each placed a hand over aperture. Mr. Pugh at once stated that he was touched by the lead-pencil which was apparently handed up to him through the trap-door. Then (a shower of) little raps were heard. Then several chords upon the autoharp. At this moment, (about 12:55), THE RED LIGHT INDICATOR IN RECORDING PORTION OF TELEKINETOSCOPE LIT UP FOR ABOUT A SECOND. Mr. Pugh at once looked inside cage where the transmitting portion of instrument had been placed, AND BUBBLE AND SHADE WERE INTACT, thus absolutely proving the presence of psychic, (electrical?), power or force. Just before this wonderful manifestation, the rattle-bells had been thrown out of cage upon the floor. The centre table then tried to move itself. Again, the trap-door was rattled, violently up and down from within the cage. Then violent raps (the loudest heard at any of these sittings), in the centre of the table, and another blue flash. Then more noises within cage.
At this juncture, (12:45), medium came out of her trance. The medium appeared to be in a deeper trance at this sitting than at any of the previous ones. She had shivering fits, and was reclining upon Mrs. Pratt most of the time, though she did not appear to become so cold as usual. Her temperature was sub-normal before and after the sitting, and her pulse was very variable. It is worthy of note that the musical-box was played more at this sitting than at any other. At the close of the sitting, many of the articles in upper and lower portion of cage were found to have been moved; trumpet had been knocked over. In again examining the transmitting portion of the Telekinetoscope, it was found that the BUBBLE WAS STILL INTACT, and Mr. David Gow and Mr. H.W. Engholm, Editors of "light," were brought in to witness this fact. The bubble had lasted 13/4 hours, notwithstanding the movements of the table, etc. The temperature of the séance room dropped one degree below that recorded at commencement of sitting.
The TELEKINETOSCOPE is an electrical instrument specially designed by me for the Stella C. experiments, in order to demonstrate telekinetic power under conditions which absolutely preclude fraud, accident, or error in observation.
The instrument itself consists of a brass cup, five inches in diameter and two and a half inches deep. The cup is mounted on a metal tripod with levelling screws, and has a turn-in flange three-eighths of an inch wide. Around the periphery of the cup, and stamped in the flange are twelve three-sixteenth holes. Placed loosely inside the cup is a contact-marker made of thin sheet fibre, connected with two brass strips to which are fastened the leads (composed of best rubber and silk insulated flex). The whole is mounted on a thick rubber base.
The contact-maker is made of fibre in order to lessen the metallic surfaces thought to inhibit the psychic "force." A narrow strip of thin metal is fastened round the contact-maker connecting, by means of a piece of pure tin fuse-wire, to the brass screw holding the fibre slip. When the contact-maker is in situ in the brass cup, a soap-bubble (composed of distilled water, glycerine, and Castile soap), is drawn across the top of the cup, thus effectively sealing it. In this condition it is normally impossible to depress the contact-maker (thus completing circuit), without destroying the bubble. As a further precaution, and to prevent the bubble drying too rapidly or bursting spontaneously, a glass shade is put over the whole of the instrument. It has been found by experiment that the bubbles last some hours under favourable conditions. The small apertures around the periphery are the only means by which the psychic power or force can enter the cup, and, if possible, depress the contact-maker, the spring of which can be made to any degree of sensitiveness. The transmitting instrument, as described above, is then put inside a cage, cabinet, or other suitable spot, in order to register, if possible, the presence of psychic power.
The recording part of the apparatus, connected with the cup by wires, is placed on table in full view of the sitters. This portion of the Telekinetoscope consists of a small red four-volt pea lamp, enclosed with its battery under a small glass shade securely sealed to a wooden base taking the flex leads. All parts are now insulated, thus making it impossible for any outside influence to affect the lamp or battery.
It will thus be seen from the above description of the instrument that it is ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE to make an electrical circuit (and thus light the red lamp), unless the contact-maker in cup is de-
pressed. To do this normally means the removal of the covering shade, and the breaking of the sealing soap film - two safeguards that are impossible to overcome by fraudulent means without at once telling the investigators that the apparatus has been tampered with.
It will be obvious that any indicator (other than the red lamp), capable of being worked electrically, would be suitable - e.g., an electric bell.
I had devoted a considerable amount of thought and care in the construction of the Telekinetoscope, in order to ascertain whether we could secure a manifestation of psychic power upon an instrument that is absolutely fraud proof. Needless to say, I was highly gratified at the result of our first experiment, which I hope to repeat. Not by any known normal means could the contact-maker under the bubble have been depressed (thus completing circuit and lighting lamp upon the table) without (a) passing the net; (b) passing the trellis, in order to get to interior of cage; (c) removing glass shade which covered transmitting portion of instrument; (d) breaking bubble. And yet the instant the red indicator light lit up, Mr. Pugh examined the instrument and everything was intact - in fact, the bubble was intact an hour later.
I have no explanation to offer as to how the psychic power found its way into the bubble, and became powerful enough to depress the fibre contact-maker. Normally, it takes a two-ounce pressure to do this. Certainly, no solid body could have penetrated the instrument and worked the indicator. Each of the ten sitters witnessed the functioning of the instrument.
"Pugh" table used for this sitting. Red light not used on account of part of ruby well-glass missing, and unable to fix. Rays from Shadow Apparatus illuminated the séance table part of the time. Control: all hands on table, touching; feet touching; wooden trellis gate and fine gauze, tacked upon table and reaching to ground, in front of medium and adjoining sitters. Several new pieces of apparatus were tried for the first time at this sitting. These included the Pressure Flap, the Shadow Apparatus, the Air Pressure Indicator (for description of these, see below). A new test, by Col. Hardwick, was tried also. It consists of a locked box, containing a bell indicator, the key of which is inside the box and can be depressed only by interior pressure; a hold is left for the psychic "force" to enter. The Telekinetoscope was used also, though no results were obtained by its means. The usual musical toys, tin of modeller's clay, writing-pad, etc., were placed in cage under table.
Soon after sitting started, raps commenced. Medium became entranced at 11:11. More raps on table and on Mrs. Garrett's chair (11:35). Various sounds under table and mouth-organ blown. At 11:36, raps. At 11:37, mouth-organ blown. At 11:45, hand-bell rang inside cage, and was thrown down. At the same time, the trumpet was thrown down. The Shadow Apparatus was at once switched on, and the objects, which had been focussed upon the screen, were found to have been moved right out of the pencil of light. Soon after, (11:55), when the red light (the Wratten ruby filter was installed in the Shadow Apparatus), was again on, a shadow of a short structure, like a lead-pencil, was seen upon the screen, by several persons. It flashed on very quickly. Mr. Dingwall was in an excellent position to witness this effect, and he stated to those present that he had witnessed the building-up of the structure, which appeared to have a bulbous appendage. Movements on the screen afterwards were eventually traced to corresponding movements of the gauze, which threw a shadow when rucked up. At 12:00, the rubber dog squeaked. This dog was squeezed several times during the sitting. At 12:1, blue flash; at 12:16, another blue flash. At this juncture, it was intimated that "Palma," the medium's "control," would "speak." The following words were rapped out: PALMA . SPEAK . ERIC . ME . DIUM. It also started spelling Mr. Dingwall's name. It was asked whether Mr. Dingwall was meant, and three affirmative raps were given in reply. At 12:50, Col. Hardwick's box (which had been placed over the trap-door in centre table,) was moved somewhat, and the bell indicator inside box rang slightly. This could not have been done by normal means....After the sitting, the various objects (hand-bell, trumpet, dog, etc.), had been removed from their respective positions. The smoked tin plate of Pressure Flap was covered with marks; some fine lines, some coarse ones, and peculiar striated circular marks as if the structures touching it had been fibrous. Unfortunately, the switch of the Pressure Flap apparatus had accidentally fallen to the "off" position and the bell "indicator" was put out of action. The tin of modeller's clay was examined, and in the clay was found a rut about two inches long which had been made by the psychic structures. Negative results with the Telekinetoscope, Air Pressure Apparatus, and writing-pad. Dr. M. Rust took the medium's temperature and pulse. Though a good sitting, it was found that the accommodation was insufficient for the large number (thirteen,
with medium), of sitters present, and movements were cramped. It was thought also that too many devices were being experimented with at the same time. Mr. H.W. Pugh took the notes from which this Report has been made and collected the other data. The use of the Shadow Apparatus proved highly satisfactory: Mr. Dingwall plainly saw the "pseudopods" crawling from the medium (trellis and gauze intervening), to the beam of light, and back again. Stella was very tired after this sitting. Mercury dropped .75 of a degree below that recorded at commencement of sitting.
Added June 9th, 1923
Since above was typed, Mr. Eric J. Dingwall, Research Officer, Society for Psychical Research, has issued a separate Report, dated June 8th, 1923, describing the "pseudopods" he saw under Stella's chair and séance table. The Report is as follows: "Note. When the red light was switched on under the table, I lay down on the floor and looked through the passage towards the luminous screen. From near the medium's foot which was invisible, I saw an egg-shaped body beginning to crawl towards the centre of the floor under the table. It was white, and where the light was reflected it appeared opal. To the end nearest the medium was attached a thin white neck like a piece of macaroni. It advanced towards the centre and then rapidly withdrew to the shadow." - (Signed) E.J. Dingwall. 8/6/23.
It is proverbial that lookers-on see most of the game, and this adage is particularly exemplified in the case of Mr. Dingwall. He arrived at the sitting at the last moment, and all the seats at the table being taken, he occupied an armchair in the corner of the room. But not for long. As soon as the Shadow Apparatus was set going, he lay upon the floor and looked between the sitter's legs. He was well rewarded for his somewhat unorthodox and lowly position, and saw the best materialisation of the whole series of sittings, thanks to the Shadow Apparatus.
This apparatus was designed for the purpose of seeing, if possible, shadows of the psychic structures or telekinetic forces responsible for the movement of objects placed in the cage under the séance table.
The apparatus consists of three portions, viz.: the projector, the light filter, and the special screen upon which the shadows are thrown.
The projector comprises a 41/2 volt electric lamp, controlled by a
table switch, placed behind the positive and negative combination of a Zeiss telephoto lens. By this optical arrangement a suitable disc of light can be thrown on the screen several feet away from the source of illumination, under the séance table, and clear of the sitters' feet.
Immediately in front of the telephoto lens is an adjustable stand holding the light filter or filters. These filters are the Wratten "M" series, used in photo-micrography. They are composed of stained gelatine of various colours, mounted in 2" optical flats, with a suitable holder.
The 18" x 14" screen upon which the shadows are thrown is specially prepared for accurate focussing into photo-micrography. It is of wood, with an aluminium-finished matt surface, surrounded by a black border which accentuates the luminosity of the screen when in use. The special surface of this screen has the property of reflecting practically all the light projected upon it. Consequently, the maximum amount of contrast with a minimum of illuminant.
In use, a pencil of light, with coloured filter interposed, is thrown under the séance table, taking in its focus any objects (e.g., hand-bell, trumpet, etc.), that may have been placed there. The objects are thus shown sharply silhouetted upon the prepared screen. It is thought that, should movements of the objects take place, the shadows of the psychic structures would likewise be projected upon the screen, simultaneously with the objects moved. This theory has been found to be correct, and it is possible to substitute a piece of bromide paper for the screen; suddenly change the red light for a white one (by removing the coloured filter), and take a permanent skiagraph of the psychic structures.
It having been found that the operating "force" working through the mediumship of Stella C. frequently manifested by blowing a mouth-organ, trumpet, etc., the following piece of apparatus was devised in order to indicate the finer air pressures caused by the entity or psychic force:
The apparatus is self-contained and is put under the séance table, in cage, or in cabinet. It consists of an oblong wooden box, 10" x 4" x 2", with an ebonite mouth-piece, 5/8" diameter, projecting one inch at one end. The end of the mouth-piece inside the box is in close proximity to eleven small tongues of platinum foil suspended from a steel needle, and swinging freely upon it. At a distance (which can be regulated), from the platinum tongues is a metal bar. Both steel needle and metal bar are in an electric bell circuit, the bell being secured outside, on top of box. The battery is inside the box.
In the working of the apparatus, any air pressure applied to the
external end of mouth-piece impinges upon the platinum tongues which swing outwards and upwards on their supporting needle, striking the bar, and thus completing circuit and ringing bell indicator. Should the force applied be a light one, upon its cessation, the tongues drop back of their own weight. Should the force be a more powerful one, the metal bar becomes magnetised, and tongues adhere (and bell continues to ring), until the battery is disconnected by means of a switch placed outside the box. The apparatus is capable of such fine adjustment that the ordinary speaking voice, at a distance of three inches from mouth-piece, has the effect of closing the circuit and starting the bell indicator. By increasing the distance between the platinum tongues and metal bar, a greater air pressure is required to make contact and start indicator.
Our first use of the Pressure Flap was entirely successful, and, should any of my readers be inclined to construct a similar instrument, I herewith give full particulars.
This piece of apparatus I designed in order that some idea of the force of psychic pressures obtained at sittings should be demonstrated and recorded.
The "flap" is really an electric contact-maker composed of two pieces of thin cedar-wood (8" x 5"), hinged at one end and opening like a book. The normal position of the pieces is closed, but separated by a light spring which keeps the pieces half-inch apart. On the lower portion of the "flap" is a copper strip fastened across its entire width. On the underside of the upper portion are three studs, which, when pressed against the copper strip, complete an electrical circuit and ring a bell on a wall-box situated in the séance room.
The upper surface of the upper portion of "flap" is graduated into half-inch divisions, and it has been found by experiment that the various positions on the board require the following weights to depress the spring, and thus to make contact:
To lessen the force required to make contact, and to render the apparatus more sensitive, a movable weight can be placed upon any portion of the upper board. For example, a two-ounce weight placed upon division four (the centre of board), reduces the force necessary to make contact by pressure upon division eight, to three-quarters of an ounce (instead of one and three-quarters ounces without the weight).
In practice, the upper surface of upper portion of "flap" is painted over (below the graduations), with liquid white or some similar substance. When the psychic "force," "pseudopod," or other psychic structure depresses the board, the mark left on its white surface is read off on the graduated scale. The force or pressure applied at that particular spot can at once be determined.
By means of this apparatus, it may be possible to get intelligent rings on the bell (taking the place of raps), and the entity at work may be able to convey some information. Also, the apparatus could be used in a way similar to that of a telegraph transmitting key, employed in sending the Morse code. Without the use of a bell or battery (which can be switched off), the "flap" arrangement might be used by the transmitting entity or psychic "force" in "rapping" out messages.
An addition to above apparatus consists of a piece of burnished tin plate, 8" x 41/4", fastened, by means of a turn-button, to the upper surface of the upper board. The piece of tin plate has the effect of increasing the weight at any given point in the area of board to the extent of about two ounces, which must of course be allowed for when computing pressures according to the above scale. The object of this detachable plate, when blackened by means of the smoke from a turpentine lamp, is to register the marks (especially the finer ones), made by the psychic structures. Also, any marks or impressions made upon the plate are very easily photographed owing to the bright tin showing clearly through the soot. A brass holder for smoking the plate completes the apparatus.
It has been found by experience that the very finest lines are reproduced on the smoked burnished tin plate, and it is an easy matter to make photographic records of them, in brilliant contrast.
Medium unwell and under the doctor. She appeared not so bright as usual, and had lost a good deal of her colour, which is naturally bright. Her pulse was much more normal than usual, and was particularly steady, which is very unusual. Her temperature was sub-normal at start, normal at finish. Temperature of room dropped one degree below that recorded at commencement of sitting. "Pugh" table used, with fine gauze and wooden trellis gate in front of medium and adjoining sitters. Apparatus in use: Telekinetoscope; Flap Apparatus; Shadow Apparatus; modeller's clay, and the usual musical toys and writing-pad, etc., were placed under the table on the floor and shelf. As soon as medium became entranced at 11:25, the name C R A W F O R D was rapped out. Then many other raps were given in various parts of the table - two series of raps in two places were given simultaneously. At 11:26, mouth-organ blown; the red light was then turned out, and Shadow Apparatus, using the ruby screen, switched on. At 11:26, blue flash over medium; at 11:55, blue flash; at 11:57, trumpet blown; at 12:2, blue flash over medium's head; at 12:3, trap-door opened; at 12:4, mouth-organ blown; at 12:5, trumpet blown; at 12:10, trap-door in table attempted to close itself, but was prevented by Col. Hardwick, who had his hand on the flap and resisted the attempt; at 12:15, mouth-organ (trumpet?) blown; at 12:16, trap-door closed itself; at 12:20, trap-door opened, and slight movements of the flap were felt by Col. Hardwick, who held it in his hand; at 12:30, mouth-organ blown; at 12:35, blue flash in hole in table; (the flash had the effect of having been pushed up through trap-door, which happened to be open); at 12:39, trap-door tried to close.
At intervals during the above phenomena, the Shadow Apparatus, using the ruby screen, was switched on, and the trumpet was found to have been moved nearer the bell. It was admitted by the sitters present that though phenomena were witnessed in great variety, the power was weaker than usual. The fact that the medium had just left a sick bed in order to attend the séance would probably account for this. Two of the sitters stated that they detected the odour of paraffin during the séance. Negative results with the Telekinetoscope and writing-pad, clay, etc. The sooted plate of flap contact apparatus was found to have been marked, but one of the sitters stated that she noticed the marks there before the sitting commenced. This was disputed by some. These notes made from data recorded by Mr. Pugh.
The eleventh sitting with Stella was the only occasion when the medium was really unwell. She had been in bed for several days, and decided only at the last minute that she would sit for us.
The sitting was fairly satisfactory under the circumstances, but it was felt that something was wanting to make the séance a complete success. What did not alleviate the general depression was the knowledge that my contract with Stella was over and that this sitting would be the last probably (as it turned out) for several months.
Not by any stretch of the imagination can it be said that Stella is fond of sitting, or that she is particularly interested in psychical research. I had the greatest difficulty in persuading her to again sit with us after our second sitting. She simply was not interested. However, she continued with the experiments and fulfilled her promise.
After our eleventh sitting in June, I was abroad a good deal and lost touch with Stella. It was then that Dr. Woolley, a member of the Council of the S.P.R., approached me with the view to continuing our experiments at the rooms of the Society. We agreed to collaborate.
After my return from Warsaw I set about persuading Stella to give us some more sittings. She at last reluctantly agreed. During my absence abroad, she had secured a secretarial post with a firm of manufacturers, which did not help matters.
At last our arrangements were finally completed, and we had the first of the S.P.R. sittings on Sept. 27th. Mrs. Pratt, Miss Tom Gallon, Col. Hardwick, and myself of the old circle formed the nucleus of the new, which included Dr. Woolley, Mr. Dingwall and Capt. Bennett.
This, the twelfth sitting, commences a new series. Musical-box used. Powerful red light employed, much brighter than that used at previous sittings, and closer to the séance table. All sitters plainly visible. No incense used. The pulse and temperature of the medium were not taken. "Pugh" table (see previous reports), used. Several musical toys (including mouth-organ, trumpet, squeaking dog, rattle-bells, and auto-harp), were placed on upper and lower stages of "Pugh" table. Trellis gates were placed in front of medium and adjoining sitters; also upon opposite side of table. Shadow Apparatus (see special description), was placed in position, showing clearly the shadow of trumpet on luminous screen.
Soon after medium became entranced the raps commenced. "Palma," Stella's control, signified that she was present. Many raps and creakings in various parts of the table. It was decided to try the alphabet, which was recited by Mr. Price. After various repetitions, the following message was spelled out: STELLA KNOWS MUNN SHE WILL LEAVE. It was asked whether the word "Munn" was intended for the name of the proprietors (Munn & Co.), of the "Scientific American". "YES," was spelled out. It was mentioned that the "Scientific American" had made an offer to Stella to visit the States. Stella had never heard the name of "Munn." "Palma" was asked to manifest upon the musical toys. She promised she would before the séance closed. "Palma" was asked to imitate various kinds of raps given by Mr. Price and other sitters. The raps were well imitated. Mr. Dingwall made a "sawing" noise, which "Palma" imitated more or less correctly. Mr. Price then asked "Palma" if she could give the name of the thief who had the previous day stolen his gold coins. The answer was rapped out: DINGWALL KNOWS HIDE I DON'T. This answer was not taken seriously. A long series of raps was afterwards given. Just before the séance closed, a decided squeak was given upon the rubber dog. After the white light was switched on, the objects under the table were examined, but it was thought that nothing had been moved. Stella was very sleepy after sitting, and stated that she had been "uncomfortable," which may have accounted for the brief period that she was under control or in the trance state.
Considering that three months had elapsed since the previous séance, this twelfth sitting was fairly satisfactory. It must be borne in mind that the surroundings were strange to Stella, and that the circle had not yet got together properly. But it was a start.
For this sitting, the brilliant red lamp had been shaded with a piece of red tissue paper, thus removing the glare of the filament. All sitters plainly visible and hands linked up. Musical-box used, but not incense. Dr. V.J. Woolley took the medium's pulse-rate. Stella went into trance during the first few minutes, and eventually reclined upon Mrs. Pratt's shoulder. Raps and creaks in the table were of frequent occurrence after the medium became entranced. The inner structure
of the "Pugh" table appeared to move at times, and some of the sitters stated that they could feel pulsations in the table-top. Without warning, the shelf or upper platform of the inner table suddenly gave way with a rending sound. Upon this platform and the floor beneath had been placed the usual musical toys, etc., and these were disturbed by the breaking away of the inner shelf. Two notes upon a wind instrument were given. It was at first thought that the notes come from the trumpet, but experiments afterwards suggested that the notes came from the "G" tube of the pitch-pipes which had been placed beneath the table. Two bright blue-white flashes were witnessed during this séance. They resembled sparks produced by the discharge across the points of a Ruhmkorff coil. The flashes appeared to be over the centre of the table. The sparks were produced in total darkness, and at the request of one of the sitters. The Shadowgraph Apparatus (using a deep red filter), was flashed on under the table at intervals, but only on one occasion was the shadow of the trumpet moved from its noted position on the luminous screen. This was after the fracture of the shelf of the inner table. Various raps were given on the table by the sitters, with a request to Stella's "control," "Palma," that she should imitate them. This was done correctly. Towards the end of the sitting "Palma" was asked to manifest by raps. By means of the alphabet, recited by Dr. Woolley, the following message was rapped out: HAVE GIRL SITTER NEXT WEEK - NOT DINGWALL GIRL. It was asked by a sitter if Mr. Dingwall should come next week, as "Palma" was somewhat ambiguous. The answer was rapped out: YES DINGWALL GOOD. Mr. Dingwall mentioned to the company that he had been considering that morning the inclusion of another lady sitter in the circle. "Palma" evidently objected. At nearly the end of the sitting, the rubber dog was removed from the floor under the table, where it had been placed, and was somewhat violently flung across the séance room, striking Dr. Woolley and Mr. Dingwall in its path. Several of the sitters complained of cold during the séance. The medium's hands became extremely cold during the sitting (in the trance state), and when Stella awoke, she complained of being very cold and sleepy. Hot milk was given her, but she was much longer than usual in recovering her normal condition. Unfortunately, by an oversight, her pulse rate and temperature at end of sitting were not taken. Thermometer fell .5 degree below that recorded at commencement of sitting.
The number thirteen proved "unlucky" as far as we were concerned, for after this séance Stella informed me by letter that she had
decided not to continue the sittings. Her employment fully occupied her time, and she said the sittings made her feel tired, which is more than probable.
Though I do not, like Stella, possess the power of prevision, I feel certain that some day she will come back to us. She will receive a warm welcome. There is a vast amount of work still to be done, and many experiments left unfinished. I am positive that with a sympathetic environment, and with suitable sitters, Stella could produce the whole gamut of psychic phenomena.
If my readers look for "conclusions" or "explanations" of the wonders we witnessed, they will be disappointed. If Professor Richet, after thirty years of incessant application to the subject is unable to find satisfactory answers to the series of riddles evolved by psychical research, I have no inclination to theorize concerning the phenomena we saw. The spirit hypothesis is as good as any, and may prove the correct explanation when the laws governing phenomena are known.
At least these Stella experiments have absolutely proved, beyond cavil or contradiction, that the temperature of the séance room falls during the psychic exudations of some mediums; also, that the power or "force," in an attenuated state, is able to permeate a soap film and exert its strength to a pressure of a least two ounces. These two things can be deduced from the reports themselves, which I commend to the earnest consideration of the reader.
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